A hydraulic pump motor system is comprised of three main parts: a reservoir, a pump, and the motor itself. Hydraulic motors can have a huge range of sizes, configurations, speeds, and power outputs. However, all of these motors operate using the same basic principles.
The first part of the hydraulic pump motor system is the hydraulic pump. While hydraulic pumps come in just as many varieties as hydraulic motors, they too all operate very similarly. At the inlet of the pump, a vacuum is created which draws in the working fluid, usually oil. The pump then pulls the fluid into a reservoir where it can be held under pressure.
When the operator is ready to utilize the motor, the pressurized fluid can then be released from the reservoir into the motor. Depending on the type of motor, the fluid pushes against a cylinder, gears, or other components of the motor. The force on these components causes them to move and convert the fluid’s pressure into torque and rotation.
Different speeds and torque can be achieved using different motor configurations. Hydraulic motors come in gear, vane, gerotor, axial plunger, and radial piston configurations. Gear and vane motors are great for applications requiring higher speeds, or higher revolutions per minute. On the other hand, radial piston motors are much better for high power applications at lower speeds. These motors are utilized in many kinds of industry, from construction to manufacturing. They are used in winches, military vehicles, cranes, conveyors, mixers, mills, shredders, injection machines, and much more.